Sunday, April 27, 2014

Labour Costing Formula

1. Labour Turnover: It denotes the percentage change in the labour force of an organisation. High percentage of labour turnover denotes that labour is not stable and there are frequent changes in the labour force. It is always expressed in the terms of percentage. It can be measured with the help of the following formula:

1) Separation rate method = Separation during the period
Average No. of worker’s during the period
Note: This method is not suitable when surplus labour is discharged.

2) Net labour Turnover rate (or) Replacement method = Number of replacements
Average No. of worker’s during the period
Note: This method takes into surplus labour.
3) Labour flux rate = No. of separation + No. of replacement
Average No. of worker’s during the period
Note: this method is not applicable when the organisation is expanding.
4) Labour turnover = (No. of Additions + No. of Separations)/2
Average no. of employees during a period
Note: This method will misguide when an organisation has reached its optimum size and does not require expansion at all.

a.      Average number of employees = (No. of workers in the beginning + No. of workers at the end)/2
b.      No. of additions = Total of new workers appointed and workers replaced during the year.
c.       No. of Separations = Total of workers discharged, leaved and retrenched during the year.
d.      No. of Replacement = Workers appointed on behalf of those workers who are separated from the organisation.

2. Labour Productivity: It is simply relationship between output and input. It is calculated as:
a.      Output per man hour = Total output/Man hour used
b.      Output per rupee of wages paid = Total output/Total wages
c.       Output per worker = Total output/Total No. of workers
d.      Sale value per worker = Sales value/Total No. of workers
e.       Wages per unit of Product = Direct wages/No. of Units
f.        Added Value per rupee of wages = Added Value of Product/Total wages

3. Labour Performance Ratios:
a.      Absenteeism Rate = (No. of Absentees during a period/Avg. no. of workers employed during a period)x100
b.      Accident Frequency Rate = (No. of accidents to date/Number of days to date)
c.       Labour Illness Rate =(Lost hours due to illness/Total man hours during a period)x100
d.      Labour Efficiency Rate = (Hours Allowed for Actual Production/Actual hours taken)x100
e.       Labour Utilization Rate = (Actual hours utilized/Available hours)x100
f.        Ratio of Overtime Premium cost to Total labour cost = (Overtime premium cost/Total labour cost)x100

4. Method of Remuneration:
1) Time Rate system
a) Flat time Rate
b) High wage system
c) Graduated time rate
2) Payment by Results
a) Piece rate system
ü  Straight piece rate
ü  Differential piece rate
ü  Taylor system
ü  Merrick system

b) Group Bonus System
ü  Budgeted Expenses
ü  Towne gain sharing scheme
ü  Cost efficiency bonus
ü  Priest man system

c) Combination of Time and Piece rate
ü  Gantt task and Bonus scheme
ü  Emerson Efficiency system
ü  Point scheme
ü  Bedaux system
ü  Haynes manit system

d) Premium bonus plans
ü  Halsey premium plan
ü  Halsey weir premium plan
ü  Rowan scheme
ü  Barth scheme
ü  Accelerating premium bonus scheme

e) Other incentive schemes
i) Indirect monetary incentive
ü  Profit sharing
ü  Co-partnership
ii) Non-Monetary Incentive

1) Time rate system = Hours worked * Rate per hour (Basic wages)

2) Piece rate system: 
i) Straight piece rate earnings = Number of units produced * Rate per Piece
If Units are not given, then straight piece rate earnings are calculated on the basis of Standard time basis.

ii) Differential Piece rate = Number of units produced * Differential Rate per Piece
F.W.Taylor’s differential rate system
» 80% of piece rate when below standard
» 120% of piece rate when above or at standard

Merrick differential or multiple piece rate system
» Efficiency Level up to 83% = Normal piece rate is applicable
» 83% to 100% = 110% of Normal piece rate is applicable
» Above 100% = 120% of Normal piece rate is applicable

iii) Gantt Task and Bonus system
» Output Below standard = Time rate (Guaranteed Payment)
» standard output = 20% Bonus of Time rate
» Above standard = 120% of ordinary piece rate

iv) Emerson’s Efficiency system
» Efficiency Level Below 66.7% = Hourly Rate of payment
» Efficiency Level from 66.7% to 100% = Hourly rate of payment (+) increasing bonus according to degree of efficiency on the basis of step bonus rates
» Efficiency Level Above 100% = Hourly rate of payment (+) 20% Bonus (+) additional bonus of 1% of hourly rate for every 1% increase in efficiency                

v) Halsey Premium Plan = (Time Taken * Hourly Rate) + 50% (time saved * Hourly Rate)
vi) Halsey Weir Premium Plan = (Time Taken * Hourly Rate) + 30% (time saved * Hourly rate)
vii) Rowan Plan = (Time Taken * Hourly Rate) + (Time saved/Time Allowed) *(Time Taken * Hourly Rate)                                                          
viii) Bedaus Point system = (Time Taken * Hourly Rate) + 75% * Bedaus point/60 * Rate per hour

ix) Barth’s System = Hourly rate * √Std time *Time taken